1. : Plant material is placed in a distillation unit with water inside. Heat is then applied to the unit. As the water heats, the plant part (sacs) holding the essential oil will then release the essential oil. Oil droplets rise with steam droplets and are sucked into a pipe. The oil and water are joined at this point. To separate them, the steam runs through a steam pipe which connects to a cooling unit. The oil and water separate in this cooling process. Two separate pipes collect water in one, and oil in another.
2. : A machine separates the peel from the citrus fruit, then mashes the peel to release the essential oil from the peel’s sacs.
Water is passed over the plant material. The plant material, water and oil are passed through a sieve and then separated in a centrifuge where the components are spun at high speeds, separating the water and oil.
3. : Delicate plant material, such as flower petals, are washed and mashed in a chemical substance such as hexane or benzene. These chemicals pull the essential oil from the plant material. The mixture of solvent and essential oil are then carefully separated with ethanol, creating what is called an “Absolute.”